Oleg Benesch / ベネシュ・オレグ / 贝奥雷

Medievalism

“Medievalism and Global Modernity”, Research Strand sponsored by the Centre for Modern Studies at the University of York

For over 200 years, medieval symbols have been widely used in the service of nationalism and imperialism in Britain and Europe. The rise of nativist movements across the world in the early twenty-first century has seen a resurgence of medieval imagery. Political parties and activists draw upon a wide range of medievalist symbolism, from crusaders to Vikings to castles. This medievalist trend extends far beyond its European origins, and societies as diverse as Japan and Turkey are rediscovering and reinventing elements of their own idealized medieval pasts. In the United States—itself too young to have a direct medieval heritage—medieval European symbols feature prominently in the popular political discourse.

Recent scholarship on medievalism has explored the strong connections between medievalism, nationalism and imperialism, as the age of high imperialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries coincided with the peak of medievalism in much of Europe and in the former European settler colonies, especially in North America. Colonial architecture borrowed from medieval designs. World’s fairs combined medievalist pageantry with the most modern technology. Medieval and medievalist literature was voraciously consumed by Europeans and their descendants overseas. Imperialism itself made use of the medieval by framing the non-Western societies it encountered as being in an earlier, often ‘medieval’ stage of development and therefore suitable for conquest and ‘guidance’ towards ‘civilisation’. These narratives of evolutionary progress were also attractive to many non-Western societies as they provided a seemingly empirical model for their own future path to prosperity and power. At the same time, medievalism could provide potent tools and symbols for processes of resistance and decolonisation.

The research strand Medievalism and Imperial Modernity looks at medievalism from a global perspective. It engages with the extensive academic scholarship on medievalism in Europe and the Americas to see how its development impacted non-Western societies. This exchange was not unidirectional, however, and this research strand explores how non-Western medievalisms travelled elsewhere—including the West—in a complex entangled process. It examines the responses of societies that encountered Western medievalism, and how non-Western medievalisms developed and in turn provoked their own responses in Europe and elsewhere. Questions at the heart of the project include: What is ‘medievalism’ in a global context? What is the relationship between medievalism and empire and decolonisation? How have different societies responded to medievalism? How have non-Western medievalisms developed? What role does global medievalism play in the world today?

For more information on the research strand and its activities, please see the Centre for Modern Studies website.

“Imperial Japanese Navy Marine Review” with Osaka Castle, 1930s.

World War I poster: “La Réponse de l’Amérique aux Boches” [America’s Answer to the Germans] (Art.IWM PST 7030) Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/28812